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Historic pigments Obsolete colors
While a few obsolete pigments get a mention in the main lists because they were so important or remain famous, there are many others not so well known but which might be found in accounts of painting techniques. Some of these colors are found in modern color ranges with modern pigment formulations, but most have been forgotten. The more important historic pigments can be purchased from specialist pigment suppliers.

Historic color list Gone but not forgotten

Alexandrian Blue
Another name for Egyptian Blue Frit (see below).
Alizarin Crimson
Alizarin Crimson is the synthetic version of the coloring agent in natural Madder and from its adoption in the latter part of the 19th century artist's hailed its many virtues. It was stronger than Madder and the deep red color was perfect for mixing. it was also believed to be more permanent than Madder because the manufacturer said so. It was not discovered until independent testing was carried out in the late 20th century that Alizarin Crimson was significantly less light fast than its natural parent. With more than one permanent alternative waiting in the wings to take over Alizarin has seen a dramatic reduction in usage.
Ancorca
Spanish name for an impermanent yellow lake made from Weld, also called Arzica (see below.)
Antimony Orange
See Antimony Vermilion below.
Antimony Vermilion
A light fast pigment bright in color that suffered on introduction in the mid 19th century because it reacts with lead pigments and goes black. Now that lead pigments are rarely used it won't make a come back as the Cadmium's are excellent pigments in their own right and firmly entrenched in this color range.
Antwerp Blue
Prussian Blue with 75% extender. Never was a reliable pigment.
Asphaltum
Bitumen, used because of a belief that the color gave an 'old master' look to pictures. What it actually did was make pictures crack and dry poorly. It persisted as a pigment until the end of the 19th century. Sometimes the name was applied to Mummy (see below).
Arzica
A non-toxic substitute for the poisonous Orpiment (see below). It was impermanent and was a semi opaque yellow lake made from Weld (see below).
Atramentum
Effectively meant the color of ink, mostly black but also red, green, and violet which were the colors used in classical times. These inks were of various sources and came under the heading Atramentum Librarium. There was another sort called Artramentum Sutorium which was used for dyeing leather black and a third kind called Atramentum Pictorium (also tectorium) which was used by artist's. Various pigments were used under this name including Sepia (see below). There was also Ink Stone which was basically tannic acid that has reacted with iron salts. Ink in ancient times tended to be much thicker than today and was complained about because of that (which is why we know). Most ink colors from ancient times were more light fast than modern non pigmented inks.
Attic Sil
The finest grade of Yellow Earth available to the Greco-Roman world. As the name implies, it came from Attica in Greece.
Auripigmentum
Another name for Kings Yellow (see below).
Aurum Musicum
Another name for Mosaic Gold (see below).
Azure Blue
Another name for a variety of Smalt (see below).
Azure Green
Green shades of Smalt and Egyptian Blue (see both below)
Azurite
A beautiful blue pigment used from Ancient times. Occurs naturally alongside the chemically similar Malachite but is more permanent. Was eventually synthesized and marketed as Bremen Blue (see below). Both were made obsolete by the synthesisation of Ultramarine and the development of Cobalt Blue. it is the characteristic sky blue color that is seen in Renaissance paintings, although it worked best as a water based color and was often used as Tempera under an oil glaze.
Barium Yellow.
Barium Chromate. Also called Lemon Yellow. Available until quite recently. It is significantly paler than the other chromate's, almost a whitish yellow in some cases it is the most opaque of the chromate's and was considered permanent in in all media but seemed to be more popular in watercolor.
Bice
See Bremen Blue below.
Bismuth White
Introduced in the early 19th century it was quickly replaced by Zinc White when that arrived a few years later. It was used as it was not poisonous, but had the problem of being prone to darkening when mixed with pigments containing sulfur.
Bistre
An unreliable brown pigment produced by burning Beech wood.
Bitumen
Another name for Asphaltum (see above).
Black Lead
Was believed in the early days to be a type of lead and had small use. It is the natural form of Graphite.
Blue Verditer
See Bremen Blue below.
Bole
A type of natural red iron oxide. The name is much used in early writings. The nearest modern equivalent we would call Light Red.
Brazil wood
An impermanent bright red lake extracted from the Brazilwood tree of South America and a major source of trade that gave its name to the country. So far as I know this is the only country named after a color although three colors are named after countries. (Turquoise/Turkey, Verdigris/Green from Greece, and Gamboge/Cambodia) Brazilwood was known by many names such as Verzino, Rose pink, and of course Red Lake. It has been found in a substantial portion of the paintings of Van Gogh.
Bremen Blue
A synthetic copper blue similar to, but not so permanent as Azurite. It was made in numerous shades and had many common names. Survived until the early 20th century due to the attractiveness of its color.
Bremen Green
A green variant of Bremen Blue (see above) that resembled Malachite but tended to be more blue.
Brown Madder
A variety of Alizarin Crimson very transparent but not permanent.
Brown Pink
See Dutch Pink below.
Brunswick Green
A common name for the color that was sold to artist's more commonly as Prussian Green (see below).
Burnt Carmine.
A fugitive dark red version of Carmine (see below) but even less permanent than its parent pigment. After roasting it was often mixed with Van Dyke Brown to get the richest shades.
Buckthorn
The berries of this plant were extensively used to produce various green and yellow lakes such as Sap Green (see below). Impermanent.
Calcined Vitriol
Copper Sulfate normally used as an ink or as a textile and hair dye. The pentahydrate form is a very bright blue.
Carmine
A crimson red lake pigment that came into use in the decades following Columbus. A variety of Kermes (see below) it was  made from Cochineal, an insect of Central America. It was in common use until recently and the name has been applied to many other pigments since the decline in use of the genuine pigment.
Carmined Lake
A variant of Carmine (see above).
Carthame
A common name for Safflower (see below).
Cassel Earth
See Van Dyke Brown below.
Celadon Green
A variety of Green Earth that contains celadonite which gave it a particular grayish pale green color. Sadly most of the deposits of these many different Green Earths were mined out over time and are no longer easily available.
Chinese Vermilion
The best Vermilion was Chinese Vermilion. See Vermilion below.
Chrome Green
Not a mixture as such, but a process where Prussian Blue is made in a tank that contains Chrome Yellow, the  yellow becoming chemically bound to the blue. It has all the disadvantages of both pigments with no real virtues except that it was made in a multitude of versions each just as impermanent as the rest.
Chrome Orange
Chemically similar to Chrome Yellow and sharing its problems (see below).
Chrome Red
Chemically similar to Chrome Yellow and sharing its problems (see below).
Chrome Yellow
Introduced in 1797 the Chrome Yellows and the red and orange versions became popular due to their opacity, their bright colors and because they were inexpensive. Unfortunately they are also impermanent and tend to darken and react with other pigments. They survived until quite recently, but have shared the fate of other lead pigments in recent years.
Chrysocolla
A natural green copper pigment used in Ancient Egypt in the earliest times alongside Malachite. Although Malachite continued to be used it seems Chrysocolla became obsolete when Egyptian Green was developed.
Cinnabar
Natural mercuric sulfide Used by both the Ancient Chinese and Ancient Egyptians. It was not as bright a red as the synthetic Vermilion that would eventually replace it, but it was still much brighter than the Red Earths. In Europe it occurred naturally in Spain where it was exposed high on cliffs and it is said that arrows were used to dislodge pieces of the ore.             
Cobalt Ultramarine
A type of Cobalt Blue developed by Gahn that is inferior to Thenard's Cobalt Blue.
Cochineal
An insect secretion from Central America that is the source of the color Carmine and various Crimson and red lakes of the Renaissance and later. See Lac below.
Cologne Earth
See Van Dyke Brown below
Cremnitz White
Another name for White Lead (see below).
Dragon's Blood
Thought in ancient times in Europe to be the congealed blood of Dragons and Elephants blood mixed together as they fight to the death. It was known to fade rapidly. To quote Cennini "...leave it alone and do not have much respect for it..."  It actually is a red gum from a South East Asian tree.
Drop Lake
A red pigment made from Brazilwood (see above).
Dutch Pink
A fugitive color made from Buckthorn berries. It was a yellowish color despite the name. The same color was also sold as Still-de-grain, English Pink, Italian Pink, and Brown Pink.
Egyptian Blue Frit
Probably the first synthetic pigment it addressed the lack of a natural dark blue of any permanence. It did this indirectly as glass makers had discovered a way of making dark blue glass. This was ground into a pigment and had great beauty even though it was relatively weak and rather coarse. It was the only deep permanent blue until Ultramarine was developed 4,000 years later. In the 17th century an improvement to the original formula was developed and called Smalt (see below) Also called Alexandria Blue this color persisted until the synthesisation of Ultramarine in the 19th century.
Egyptian Brown
Another name for Mummy (see below).
Egyptian Green
A variant of Egyptian Blue (see above) that was developed in the later part of Ancient Egyptian times. It has similar properties to Egyptian Blue.
Emerald Green
One of the most beautiful green pigments but also the most poisonous. It is so poisonous it was sold under the trade name Paris Green as an insecticide. It is copper aceto-arsenite. Sadly it wasn't even permanent as a color. It could both fade in sunlight and darken as it tended to react chemically with other colors.
English Pink
See Dutch Pink above.
Flake White
Another name for White Lead (see below)
Folium
A deep violet, blue, or red color made from Turnsole (see below) or Woad (see below) and was fugitive. It was a general color name applying to the use of these colors by book illuminators. The name deriving from folia the latin name for pages in a book.
French White
Another name for White Lead (see below).
Gall Stone
A yellow lake that was supposed to be made from ox gall but was more likely to be Quercitron Lake.
Gamboge
A yellow gum from South East Asia. Its name is a corruption of Cambodia. One of the most light fast of the natural colored gums but poor compared to the best of modern organics and toxic as well.
Geranium Lake
A fugitive lake based on Eosine that was popular during the late 19th century and well into the 20th. Van Gogh is known to have used it and that it has faded.
Giallorino
A lead yellow described by Cennini as 'lasting forever' and that it originates in the vicinity of volcanos. Many authorities suggest that it is Massicot as Cennini does not list this color with his yellows and it was known to be widely used at the time. However there is another passage in Cennini that suggests that this is not the case as in his description of Ochre he describes it as 'not so light as Giallorino'. This indicates (along with the volcano connection) that the color must have been a common name for Naples Yellow. Cennini mentions volcanos but says Giallorino is artificially made. This fits with Naples yellow as it was in Roman times collected as natural deposits from Mount Vesuvius, but by the time of Cennini it had been synthesised. As Cennini suggests it is very permanent (unlike Massicot) and will 'last forever' Another possibility is that the name is used also for Lead-Tin Yellow (see below). This is another lead yellow that is known to be used, yet seems not to be mentioned a lot if at all. It is entirely possible that the name Giallorino was used for both colors, and being all lead based they may have been regarded as different shades of a similar pigment, and in which case the origins could possibly have been confused. Lead-Tin Yellow is as permanent as Naples Yellow and is of a light lemon yellow hue. Another possibility is that in an age before even the idea of standardization had occured that different authorities in different towns could use the same name for different colors and that some would mean Massicot and others mean Naples Yellow.
Green Lake
Another lake made from unripe Buckthorn berries especially if mixed with a blue. If made for Watercolors it could mean the darker green we now call Hooker's Green.
Green Verditer
Another name for Bremen Green (see above).
Gypsum
Natural Calcium Sulfate it is very white and works well in water based mediums. it was the favored white pigment used in Ancient Egypt. It does not work well in oils and is never seen as an artist's pigment now although it continues to be used in paper making and in the textile industry. Also called Terra Alba.
Haarlem Blue
see Antwerp Blue above.
Hartshorn
A white pigment prepared by carefully calcining deer antlers. It was used for mixing tints with pigments that were problematic when mixed with White Lead such as Massicot.
Heliotrope
An impermanent red-violet lake made from turnsole (see below).
Indian Lake
Another name for Lac (see below).
Indian Yellow
A bright yellow pigment of fair permanence that was made by force feeding cattle on Mango leaves and then concentrating the urine. Was banned in 1908 as being cruel to the animals. All colors since then with the name are other pigments.
Indigo
A deep blue color made from a plant native to India. It was always a textile dye with small use as an artist's pigment from Ancient Egyptian times. The characteristic pinkish skies in English watercolors of the 18th and early 19th centuries is actually Indigo which has faded to leave the Ochre component of the original mixture used by the watercolorist. Those skies would have been grayish blues when first done. Indigo was replaced in the 19th century by a synthetic color. These days the name is used for various mixtures but the real pigment is never used due to its rapid fading.
Iris Green
A fugitive lake made from Iris flowers. Before it disappeared the name was being applied to Sap Green (see below).
Italian Pink
A common name for Dutch Pink when it was sold for artist's use. Impermanent no matter which name it had.
Kermes
A red produced by an insect that lives on the scarlet oak of Europe. It produces a blood red color that was highly valued. See Red Lake below.
Kings Yellow
A very poisonous opaque yellow pigment. It is the synthetic version of the natural mineral Orpiment which is basically arsenic trisulfide, although it appears the natural orpiment is less poisonous than Kings Yellow, although both are not permanent. Was made obsolete by Cadmium Yellow. Realgar is an orange colored variation that is actually arsenic disulfide.
Lac (Lake)
Any of several transparent red glazing colors used in the Renaissance but principally at first Lac a product from India and a colored version of Shellac. As brighter blue-reds became available, especially Kermes(see above) and Cochineal (see above) these were made by precipitating the dye onto a base to make a color that imitated Lac and so the name 'Lake' originated meaning any transparent dye based color precipitated on an inert pigment base and useful for glazing. Other paints often used as ' Red Lake' include Dragons Blood (see above), Madder (see below), Logwood (see below), and Brazilwood (see above). Now only Madder and Cochineal are still used and then only in small quantities. Madder is the most light fast of them but none match the permanency of modern synthetic lakes. Lac was the third most expensive pigment during the Renaissance behind gold and Ultramarine, but was considered worth it
Lapis Lazuli

A pigment made from the precious stone Lapis Lazuli found in Central Asia. It was used since ancient times as a simple ground up mineral but until the Persians developed a means of extraction of the coloring agent it was a poor weak color of limited use called either ground Lapis Lazuli or Lazuline Blue. The mines in Afghanistan have been continually worked for as much as 7,000 years. Ancient artworks in Mesopotamia show the use of Lazuline Blue. The Persian extraction process turned a weak mineral pigment into a major art material that is associated with the Renaissance. It is made by pulverizing and then extracting the coloring mineral from the native stone in a process using lye. Cennini gives the recipe in his book but for many years its origins and manufacture were a matter of mystery. It arrived in Venice on Arab Dhows and it was simply known as the pigment from overseas ('ultra marine') It was literally worth it's weight in gold and was a similar price to  pigment made from gold itself. Artist's could not afford to just use it at whim as only princes and large wealthy churches could afford it and it's use would be written into contracts. More than one artist was caught after being paid a premium for using Ultramarine and then substituting alternative and cheaper pigments. Slightly less fraudulent was for an artist to paint a blue area with Azurite then glaze a thin layer of Ultramarine over that. Synthetic Ultramarine is chemically identical, although usually a more more reddish shade. The genuine pigment supply was disrupted by the wars in Afghanistan over recent years but the color is available as both pigment and paint by special order. At the darkest hours of war a tiny tube cost around $500. Prices have fallen since then and new supplies have come on stream from Chile and near Lake Baikal in Russia. For the first time in many years it is becoming easy to purchase genuine Ultramarine in tubes. One American company even offers it as an Acrylic Paint. Most obsolete pigments disappeared because they are either poisonous or impermanent, but Lapis Lazuli is an absolutely permanent and non-toxic pigment that was replaced due to cost alone, and it is interesting that whenever the cost of Lapis Lazuli falls a little its usage increases, although with synthetic Ultramarine being one of the cheapest pigments, genuine Lapis will never regain its previous position at the pinnacle of pigments.
Lazuline Blue
Another name for Lapis Lazuli (see above).
Lead Stannate
Another name for Lead-Tin Yellow. Some authorities (probably erroneously) associate this with Massicot. See Lead-Tin Yellow below.
Lead-Tin Yellow 
This very stable bright opaque Yellow was used from the 13th century until the middle of the 17th when it mysteriously stopped being used. it is speculated that only one family was making it by that time, closely guarding the secret and the pigment died with the last family member. It has been shown that this yellow is under glazing colors in many Renaissance paintings. It is believed to have many of the good qualities of our modern Cadmium Yellow, but it is not a well known pigment. For many years historians assumed that the bright yellow in Renaissance paintings was simply Massicot and it wasn't until the 1940's at the Doerner institute that it was discovered not to be the case. Since then analysis has shown the stannous form of lead to be common in many paintings. Cennini does not mention it, unless his term 'Giallorino' can be associated with it. The name Lead-Tin Yellow is modern in origin and it is not known what it was called in Cennini's time. It is possible that it was seen as a variety of Naples Yellow. Naples Yellow is Lead-Antimony and as such may possibly have been manufactured in association with the Lead-Tin color. There are also suggestions that it was produced in association with White Lead.
Lead White
Another name for White Lead (see below).
Leaf Green
Chrome Green. Impermanent and deservedly obsolete. The color name is still used but for other mixed colors bearing no relationship with this bad pigment.
Litharge
Lead monoxide that is used as a drier. It is the base of the 'Black Oil' which is postulated by some authorities as one of the 'secrets of the old masters, and condemned by others as a source of long term darkening and other faults in oil paintings. As a pigment it is no less problematic. It is closely related to Massicot (see below) but has a brighter yellow hue, although this was likely to change with time in the artwork. Poisonous.
Logwood
A blackish dye from a South ָAmerican tree it was claimed to be discovered by the Conquistadors, but more likely the Indians were already using it as a colorant. It became a political hot potato in the struggle between England and Spain. The English banned it to protect the local Woad (see below) industry. Sea battles were fought over the trade. In 1661 the ban was lifted and eventually the logwood importation was far larger than that of Indigo. The tree produces a wide range of colors depending on alkalinity at time of extraction from blues and black, to reds and even violet. As an artist's colorant it was used mostly as an ink and to color paper, although the brownish and reddish shades would sometimes be employed as Lakes. It was even more fugitive than Indigo. It was still being used to color paper well into the 20th century.
Madder Lake
Used from Ancient times for dying textiles. It had less artistic use than people suppose because it was weak in tinting power. It wasn't until the beginning of the 19th century that a process was developed that produced a stronger version that became very popular. Later in the century Alizarin Crimson (see above) was developed and it was thought that the natural madder would disappear as being less light fast. It wasn't until a hundred years later that it became common knowledge that the natural product was actually the more light fast of the two. Both however could not compete with more light fast modern synthetic organic pigments of similar hue and by the year 2000 both were in serious decline and no longer recommended for permanent artwork. Also called Rose Madder.
Malachite
A natural carbonate of copper and probably the best of the natural ores used for green pigments in ancient times. It occurs in association with the blue form called Azurite, although the use of Malachite seems to be earlier. Malachite seems not to have been as permanent as Azurite. A synthetic form was eventually introduced and sold as Bremen Green.
Massicot
A yellow lead color in various shades none of which were permanent. It is closely related to Litharge but has a redder color. The two were commonly described under the Massicot name.
Mineral Green
Another name for Malachite (see above)
Mineral Yellow
Another name for Turner's Yellow (see below).
Minium
Red Lead. The Romans had used the name for various natural reds but gradually it was restricted to the lead pigment only. It is a dull red that tends to darken and so has been obsolete in artist's colors for many decades, although some industrial paints still use it. The use of Red Lead in book illustration and calligraphy in the Middle Ages lead to the name being applied to small pictures in the form 'miniature'.
Mosaic Gold
An imitation gold color used throughout the Renaissance It was Stannous Sulfide and not terribly reliable. Also known as Aurium Musicum and Purpurinus. Mostly for book illumination.
Mummy
This is really ground up Egyptian mummies. It was eventually banned not because artist's had trouble with the idea of painting with dug up human bodies but because of prejudices that lead people to blame diseases on the foreign sourced pigment.
Naples Yellow
Virtually all paint ranges that use this name today are providing mixtures of Ochre, red and white. It is now some time since this pigment was commonly used. it was always a permanent color well liked by Oil Painters, but fears for the use of lead pigments has made this excellent pigment obsolete sadly. More information under Giallorino above.
Orpiment
Natural arsenic trisulfide. See Kings Yellow above.
Paris Green
See Emerald Green above.
Patent Yellow
Another name for Turner's Yellow (see below).
Platina Yellow
A lemon yellow color of great expense prepared from platinum. It became obsolete upon the introduction of the chromate's - Strontium Yellow (see below), Barium  Yellow (see above), and Zinc Yellow (see below).
Pozzuoli Blue
Egyptian Blue Frit.
Pozzuoli Red
An Earth color that had the quality of setting very hard and was popular at one time for Fresco. These days the name is sometimes applied to an English Red like version of Red Oxide PR 101.
Prussian Green
A type of Chrome Green which is made with a high proportion of extenders that was known in industry as Brunswick Green. It was known to be unreliable.
Purpurinus
Another name for Mosaic Gold (see above).
Quercitron
The Black Oak of North America produces a yellow dye that competed with Weld and Buckthorn berries as an important source of yellow lakes.
Realgar
Orange arsenic disulfide. Not permanent. See Kings Yellow above.
Red Orpiment
A common name for Realgar (see above)
Rose Lake
See Rose Pink below.
Rose Pink
A transparent pink lake popular in the Renaissance in which Brazilwood (see above) and Alum was precipitated onto chalk.
Royal Smalt
A common name for one of the better shades of Smalt (see above).
Safflower
A fugitive red lake made from the flowers of the Safflower plant and commonly called Carthame.
Saffron
A fugitive yellow dye made from the flowers of an Indian plant used from Roman times until the 19th century. Still used by traditional crafts people in India and other parts of South Asia.
Sandaraca
A name used in the Greco-Roman world to describe various lead and arsenic yellows, Cinnabar and apparently even red earths.
Sanders Blue
Originally a color made by calcining Ultramarine Ashes (see below) the name being a corruption in English of  the French name for the color: Cendres Bleues. In English the name was eventually further corrupted to Saunder's Blue. This color being expensive it was soon imitated with a copper carbonate substitute similar to Azurite (see above) and was then produced in a green variant. This cheaper Sanders or Saunder's Blue remained popular into the 19th Century.
Sanders Green
A green variant of the copper carbonate version of Sanders Blue (see above).
Sanguis Draconis
Another name for Dragon's Blood (see above).
Saunder's Blue
Another name for Sanders Blue (see above)
Sap Green
A lake made from green Buckthorn berries that was always fugitive yet sold well. Now replaced by various mixtures of other pigments of varying qualities.
Saturnine Red
The most common name for Red Lead in the centuries following the Renaissance, but during the Middle Ages it was called Minium. See Minium above for more info.
Saxon Blue
Another name for Smalt (see below). Smalt was first made in Saxony.
Scheele's Green
A copper green invented in 1778 that was very poisonous.
Sepia
Ink from the cuttlefish is a black-brown, quite strong but fades. Originally used just as an ink, the name has gradually infiltrated other media, although now days as a mixture of Burnt Umber and black.
Silver White
Another name for White Lead (see below).
Sinopia
A type of natural red iron oxide used for the red outlines in Fresco. Often mentioned in old writings.
Smalt
A variety of Egyptian Blue Frit in which the Copper is replaced by Cobalt. It is a North European development of the 17th century and was popular until the development of artificial Ultramarine. It was coarse and weak in tinting power but was seen as a significant improvement on the original Blue Frit. Also sold as Royal Smalt. Still made in small quantities and available from specialist artist's pigment suppliers but the last large commercial production of the color ceased in 1952.
Solferino
An impermanent violet red, one of the first coal tar dyes and while a beautiful color, it helped give the new aniline dyes a bad name.
Still-de-grain
See Dutch Pink above.
Strontium Yellow (PY 32)
 Strontium Chromate. Sometimes called Lemon Yellow A pale bright yellow introduced in 1836
Terra Alba
An old name for Gypsum, see above.
Terra Marita
A fugitive Yellow lake made from Saffron.
Transparent Copper Resinate
A green copper color used in Medieval times.
Turner's Yellow
Named after the inventor, not the artist, this lead pigment was impermanent but cheap and therefore popular.  Several versions were sold from bright yellow to orange. It had a reputation for going black. The name is now used for various mixtures that are more reliable but superfluous.
Turnsole
It gets its name from its great ability to turn to face the sun. The plant is also called Heliotropum which means the same thing and is the source of the color name Heliotrope which is the principal color derived from this Mediterranean plant. When used as an artists color it made various red and violet lakes. It was often confused with Woad because both are capable of producing similar colors and both were used for book illumination under the general name Folium (see above).
Tyrian Purple
A dark violet red color obtained from shell fish by the Phoenicians and made famous as the color worn by Roman Ceasars. Also used by artist's of the day as a glazing color. Not permanent.
Ultramarine
The common name for Lapis Lazuli pigment (see above).
Ultramarine Ashes
The second grade product left when the the best quality Ultramarine Blue has been removed from the Lapis Lazuli stone. As such it is just the stone ground with traces only of the genuine Ultramarine. It is permanent but a weak gray blue color.
Ultramarine Green
A weak bluish green of low tinting strength this variant on the manufacture of Ultramarine Blue has the same permanence as the Blue color. It was made between about 1840 and 1960 but some pigment specialist's such as Kremer still have some stocks left.
Uranium Yellow
A bright light yellow with green efflorescence was an uncommon but sometimes used pigment before the Second World War. Public and media hysteria over radioactivity stopped its use as a pigment, but it is in fact a perfectly safe color to use. It has a similar level of radioactivity to the human body (all physical objects emit some small level of radioactivity).
Van Dyke Brown
A peaty bituminous earth  a rich dark brown had two main defects. Firstly the organic component would fade and secondly the bitumen would cause cracking in oil paint. Also called Cassel Earth or Cologne Earth.
Verdaccio
A greenish neutral color that was made from mixing together the left over paint  in the studio and was used for working up  a drawing to the painting stage in Renaissance times, and would often be the underpainting color seen under flesh colors in Medieval art (that or Green Earth). The name Verdaccio has come to mean the name of the underpainting technique as well as the color itself. Cennini says that Verdaccio is a local name for the color in Florence and says that it is known as Bazzčo in Sienna. He never refers to the technique by the name Verdaccio, only the color, and he never mentions how to make it. He appears to presume that this is common knowledge unnecessary to repeat. He advises using Verdaccio where the deeper shadows are and in areas with more mid tones such as the chin he advises using Green Earth instead. He advises using Verdaccio in the early stages of painting water as well as flesh. It is possible to find tubes of paint called Verdaccio these days. Often this is Chromium Green Oxide, but can also be various other greens, sometimes in mixture. Chromium Green Oxide works well in the role of underpainting but is more saturated than the Verdaccio-like colors of earlier times and requires neutralizing and darkening. It is not Verdaccio as Cennini would have understood it.
Verdigris
A common synthetic green (Copper Acetate) that was used from Roman times until the 19th century. Very unreliable as it tends to react chemically with other pigments or with air. The name is a corruption of words that mean 'Green from Greece'.
Vermilion
Mercuric Sulfide. A synthetic version of the natural ore Cinnabar. The Chinese early developed a means of making it that remained the best method for 1,500 years. it was a bright orange red permanent in oils (although poor grades could turn black). It suffered from its very hazardous poisonous nature. It was said that the more it was ground the redder it became. According to Cennini if you ground it every day for 20 years it would still show improvement. its use declined rapidly at the end of the 20th century.
Verzino
Another name for Brazilwood (see above).
Violet Carmine
A version of Carmine (cochineal) that was even less permanent than carmine itself (see above).
Weld
A  common Yellow Lake of plant origin, one of the most popular organic yellows before the introduction of the modern synthetic organics and sold under various names including Yellow Lake. Quercitron and Buckthorn berries are better known but were not necessarily more commonly used than Weld. Weld tended to be suitable for making more opaque yellows than its competitors and was used as an Orpiment (see below) substitute. It's competitors were used for more delicate colors. Weld is still grown for dyeing silk.
White Lead
Lead Carbonate. Developed in Ancient Greek times this white was the perfect pigment except that it was very poisonous. Permanent, fast drying, making flexible oil films, and with a pleasing soft whiteness that artist's liked it wasn't until after World War 2 that it started to lose significant ground to Titanium Dioxide. Health concerns from the 1970's saw it's use decline sharply and from the 1990's few manufacturers were offering the color. The best grades were made by the Dutch process. Cremnitz White was a variant of the Dutch process in which the raw material was Litharge instead of lead metal sheets. Flake White, Cremnitz White, Silver White and Lead White are alternative names.
Woad
The dark blue face paint worn by Braveheart in the movie. The Saxons called it Waad which is the origin of the name. This was the British equivalent of Indigo which it competed with. It was often mixed with Indigo which was thought to improve both colors. The plant actually grows throughout Europe and beyond but was less popular in areas outside Britain because the Indigo plant produces a stronger dye. The last large scale commercial harvest of Woad occurred in 1932 although there has been a resurgence of interest in recent years and smaller scale Woad production is again occurring although not for artist's use.
Yellow Lake
Could be Dutch Pink (see above) or could also be Weld (see above). Impermanent either way.
Zinc Yellow (PY 36)
Inorganic synthetic Zinc Chromate, Commonly available from 1847 into the 1990's it was said variously to be excellent in light fastness or impermanent. A pale greenish semi opaque yellow more suitable for oil paint than water based media. Considered poisonous.
Zinnober
Another name for Vermilion, paradoxically also applied to various green mixtures with no connection to Vermilion at all.



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References
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Eastlake, Sir C L,    Materials For A History Of Oil Painting,    1847 (Dover)
Feller, R L,    Artists Pigments    1986 (National Gallery Of Art / Cambridge University)
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Gottsegen, M D,    A Manual Of Painting Materials And Techniques,    1987 (Harper & Row)
Maire, F,    Colors: What They Are And What To Expect Of Them,    1910 (Drake)
Mayer, R,   The Artists Handbook Of Materials And Techniques,    fifth edition 1991  (Faber & Faber)
Merrifield, Mrs. M P,    Medieval And Renaissance Treatises On The Arts Of Painting    1849 (Dover)
Muther, R,    The History Of Painting From The Fourth Century To The Early Nineteenth Century,    1907 (Putnam)
Parkhurst, D B,    The Painter In Oil   1898 (Lothrop, Lee & Shepard)
Patton, T C,    Pigment Handbook,    1973 (Wiley)
Porter, N      Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary,      1913 (Merriam)
Pliny, The Elder (Gaius Plinius),    Natural History,    77 AD (Penguin Classics)
Roy, A      Artist's Pigments: A Handbook Of Their History And Characteristics,      1994 (Oxford University Press)
Taubs, F,    A Guide To Traditional And Modern Painting Methods,    1963 (Thames & Hudson)
Theophilus,   On Divers Arts,    1125 (Dover)
Various,    Encyclopedia Britannica,    fifteenth edition 1981  (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc)
Various,    Paint And Painting,   1982,  (Winsor & Newton / The Tate Gallery)
Various,    The Artist's Colormen's Story,    1984 (Winsor & Newton)
Vasari, G,   The Lives Of The Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors And Architects,    1568 (Penguin Classics)


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